Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Cuba Ã¢â¬â DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza Introduction The following is a summary and analysis of the country Cuba and how a franchise like DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza can be incorporated into the culture and thrive as a business. One will glean understand how DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s product will be introduced to the consumers. Additionally, one will learn CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s history, the geography, what social institutions are implemented, their education system, living conditions, political system, religion, languages and aesthetics of this country. All these items have an influence on how DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s can introduce and integrate their pizza business within this culture. This information will assist to understand how an American company will blend or contrast with Cuba. The assumed values and cultures will need to be integrated in order to be successful. How will this affect the final product and will it be successful? DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s will need to use their international skills to influence the local government and provide documentation for the fin ancial success of placing a franchise in Cuba. Cultural Analysis Welcome to Cuba! Here is what one will want to know when visiting this country, they are; Ã¢â¬Å"Located 90 miles off the coast of Key West, Florida, Cuba is the largest Caribbean island nation. Its neighbors are the Cayman Islands, Jamaica and Haiti. Cuba spans 44,200 miles, making it a bit smaller than the state of Pennsylvania. Its varied geography includes rolling farmland, rugged mountains, urban metropolises, quaint
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
establish effective methods and policies that regulate the flow of products that negatively affect the wellbeing of people. Woodward and colleagues (2001) suggest that WHO should help policymakers by monitoring and obtaining knowledge about the flow of harmful goods across borders, such as illicit drugs and small arms as well as human trafficking. Some argue that globalization has caused several health issues from all around the world. In other words, the exchange of tobacco products, alcohol, and the emergence of fast food chains have resulted in higher levels of cardiovascular disease, cancers, etc., and foreign countries should regulate the advertisement of said products similar to Western societies (Pang, 2004). Both ideas seem to be in the right step towards improving global health, but monitoring consumer goods and regulating advertising of harmful products takes a lot of time and resources to pull off. (I may add more to this discussion) Another concern to global health is the fact that not all illnesses are recognized and treated within a biomedical paradigm. Specifically, somatic syndromes are ambiguous disorders that are not classified within a Western medical institution, and are hard to treat when using only a biomedical diagnostics. Since globalization and mass migration is rapidly impacting the world, it would seem crucial to understand how health and disease is studied within a global context. However, medical anthropologists tend to take either a bioculturalShow MoreRelatedOverview of Hrm93778 Words Ã |Ã 376 Pagestheir bachelor degree program. This course is designed to provide you the foundations of HRM whether you intend to work in HRM or not, most of these elements will affect you at some point in your career. Either you will be working with some organizations or having people working for you, in both cases you will be dealing with people. To be understandable and lively means that we need to communicate you. We start every chapter with learning objectives. The most important thing you will get out ofRead MoreKfc Marketing Strategies20155 Words Ã |Ã 81 Pagesrestaurant? Will you provide plans and an equipment list? Can I use equipment that I already own or used equipment? ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s already a KFC in my market, can I add another one? Existing KFC operators have a protected territory of 1.5 miles or 30,000 people, whichever is smaller. Outside of that, KFC seeks to build in quality trade areas that allow for reasonable store spacing in a market. Stores are only approved if the sales impact on existing KFC restaurants is below established standards. Your KFCRead MoreConflict Management and Emotional Intelligence63003 Words Ã |Ã 253 Pagesthe Ã concernÃ forÃ selfÃ andÃ forÃ othersÃ inÃ fiveÃ majorÃ formsÃ ofÃ behaviour:Ã avoiding,Ã dominating,Ã obliging,Ã compromisingÃ andÃ integrating.Ã Ã ReuvenÃ BarÃ¢â¬ OnÃ (1997)Ã analysesÃ aÃ personÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ abilityÃ andÃ potentialÃ toÃ recogniseÃ andÃ regulateÃ conflicts.Ã Ã Ã TheÃ relationshipÃ betweenÃ emotionalÃ intelligenceÃ andÃ conflictÃ formationÃ isÃ saidÃ toÃ beÃ affectedÃ byÃ factorsÃ includingÃ attitudeÃ (Eugenio,Ã 2003),Ã perceptionÃ (Berstene,Ã 2004), Ã personalityÃ (Ambe,Ã 2004)Ã andÃ pastÃ rivalryÃ (FazziRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 PagesGovernment Information: Policies and Sources Peter Hernon, Harold C. Relyea, Robert E. Dugan, and Joan F. Cheverie Library Information Systems: From Library Automation to Distributed Information Access Solutions Thomas R. Kochtanek and Joseph R. Matthews The Complete Guide to Acquisitions Management Frances C. Wilkinson and Linda K. Lewis Organization of Information, Second Edition Arlene G. Taylor The School Library Media Manager, Third Edition Blanche Woolls Basic Research Methods for Librarians RonaldRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagessubmit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to disti nguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data RobbinsRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesto use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Whetten
Question: Discuss about theResearch Methods for Law for Formalized Curiosity. Answer: Research is deemed as a formalized curiosity where there is a lot of poking and prying done for a particular purpose. Under research there is a repeated search for certain aspect, for finding out some special knowledge or some different new things regarding the present facts. Legal research is a research of lawful doctrines, principles, rules, regulations, concepts and cases, along with their methodology. The key goal of legal research is to determine the policy, the nature and the purpose which govern the particular circumstance and also determine the present efficiency, adequacy, relevance or utility. The examination of the legal precedents and principles which have been established by the tribunals, authorities and more importantly, the courts, is done by such bodies only that have the power of deciding upon the disputes and issues, in order to determine the scope of its application. For identifying the shortfalls of a current law or for highlighting the issues which have not b een properly addressed, for examining the need of new law of extent of modifications needed in the existing law for remedying the situation, and for identifying the strengths and weaknesses of particular aspects of law, research is undertaken. There are different methods of undertaking research, which can be applied in legal research. In general, the legal research is divided into two methods, i.e., doctrinal and non-doctrinal. In the research work, there is usually a combination of both these type. When there is a research which relates to certain legal questions, issues or problems, it is deemed as doctrinal, i.e., a pure legal research or a theoretical research. Where the legal research involves study of different aspects of social problems, questions, issue or society, it is deemed as socio-legal research. This study is focused on the relative benefits and the limits of the doctrinal research and that of socio-legal research method. Doctrinal research is at times referred to as an armchair research, and is deemed as crucial base of library study, due to the material which is required by the researcher could be available only in archives and libraries. It is a research of legal preposition where the pre-existing statutory provisions are analysed in addition to the present day case laws and the reasoning power of the researcher is applied. Under this kind of research, different treaties, judgments, magazines, legal journals, and statutory texts amongst the other things are used and the researcher attempts to collect all the requisite material on the particular topic from these resources, after which the reasoning power is applied for the researcher to analyse the gaps, the problems and finally the conclusion is drawn. This research also involves the analysis of case laws where they are properly arranged, ordered and systematized on the basis of their legal preposition, and the study of legal institution is done through rational deduction and legal reasoning. Socio-legal research method is gaining recognition as the researchers have identified the need of employing a wide variety of methods while undertaking the study of law and the legal phenomena, along with the need of being informed regarding an understanding of debates regarding the methods and theory in the mainstream social science. In the recent time period, the doctrinal legal research has been jolted as a result of changes in the political philosophy of law where the welfare states have envisaged the social economic transformation through the legal institutions and through the law, along with the functional facets and the consequential new substantive law in addition to some compelling pragmatic considerations which are raised from this particular metamorphosis. The social legal perspective studies the law as a social phenomenon of sub-discipline of sociology. And sociology of law has been defined as an empirical social science which is aimed at the design of theory which relate s to the social control. There are a number of benefits and limitations of doctrinal legal research. Amongst the various advantages, some have been covered here. The first one is that the doctrinal legal research involves an analysis of the legal concepts, doctrines and principles, along with the logical ordering and also the systemizing of the legal propositions which emerges from the practical utility. This method helps in providing a quick answer towards the problems, since there is a continuous engagement of the researcher in the exposition, as well as, the analysis of the case laws and the legislations, along with the integration of judicial pronouncements and statutory provisions in a workable and coherent body of doctrine. The judges and the lawyers are provided with the tools which are required for reaching the decisions regarding the immense variety of problems, which is usually carried on a very limited time period and is disposed in a timely manner. Unlike the doctrinal legal research, the empirical research takes more time for drawing conclusions. Kenneth Culp Davis has observed a key issue in this regard. In his view, there can be hundreds of years before a truly scientific answer to a particular question could be attained and in the meantime, there is a need to make certain judgments. Hence, the majority of needful thinking can be intuitive, unscientific and impressionistic which is based on insufficient data or inadequate observation or imagination/ wild guesses. The scientific findings are quite obviously based on the long term objective, but there are a number of good verdict which fall short in the scientific findings and yet are urgently needed, respectable and even valued. Another key point in favour of the doctrinal legal researcher is that by analysing, the researchers try to test the logical consistency, coherence and the technical soundness of a doctrine or legal proposition. There is an intertwining of the legal doctrines/ principles with proper and sound reasoning which leads to the properly developed law. With regards to this, the classic testimony of doctrinal legal research is the laws of tort and the administrative laws evolution and development, in addition patent law. There has been a shift of 17th century law where the right of the crow was to grant the patents for different activities, included in which were inventions. With the coming of the eighteenth century where there was recognition of patent law, functioning of specification in patent and processes of changes were drawn. In the 19th century, the key patent reforms were brought, where an understanding was gained on the role of competitors, patentees, and most importantly, the rol e of the person who were skilled in art. The 20th century witnessed the policy role with regards to the test of the patentable subject matter and also described how the patent law generally dealt with the 20th centurys technological developments. The evolution of patent law thus is a key example of this point. The next benefit which is attained through the doctrinal legal method research is that it contributes to the understanding of law, the legal processes and the legal doctrines and concepts, in a better manner so as to offer logical expositions, along with the analysis of the legal systems, doctrines and laws. These evaluations help in revealing the uncertainties and the inconsistencies of the doctrines, the legal principles and the laws. Also, a scholar who is indulged in the doctrinal legal research, in a methodical manner and with proper and convincing reasoning, is able to exhibit the ambiguities, the gaps, the loopholes and the inconsistencies in the substantive law which was being studies, along with the relevant doctrines and principles which are embedded in such laws. Hence, the researcher is able to invite the legislation for relative modifications through amendments, or substitution or repealing of such legislation, where the analysed defects cannot be given away by mere modification. This makes the law more effective and more purposive. There is also comparative analysis of the identifiable lawful legislations, doctrines or concepts which belong to different systems of law through the law scholars, which further allows improvements to be brought under the doctrines, legal concepts and the law. Another point which favours this is that the doctrinal researchers are able to initiate a theory which relates to a particular field of law, by logical ordering and systematizing of legal propositions which emerge from the reasoning and analysis conducted by the researcher. With time, such theoretical propositions attain support from other researchers and so, this method helps in theory building. Also, through the systematic analysis, particularly for the judicial statements, helps in predicting the future concepts based on contentions and directions which are likely to be undertaken for the future. In spite of the numerous benefits highlighted above, there are limitations in the doctrinal legal research method. The first one in this regard is that the doctrine or the legal principle which is under inquiry, along with the consequential projections of the researcher, becomes subjective due to the fact that a perception is exhibited in the subject matter at hand. Hence, a different perception by another ruler cannot be ruled out. So, in doctrinal method, on the basis of the analytical skills and the reasoning power of the researcher, different projections or perceptions of the same concept can be established by different scholars. Hence, different or contradicting points can be proved with equally convincing logical reasoning. Apart from this, the researcher, under this method, gathers the policies from their own experience, their reflections, case reports and the authoritative statutory material. This inquiry in the concept of law does not get the support of social values or facts. And so, the research becomes a theoretical one, which is devoid of the social facts. As a result of this, the predictions and projections of the researcher are bound to be far from reality and thus, inadequate. There is a need for the law to be an effective instrument of socio-economic transformations which require the same to be seen in the light of social values. This concept is inapt under the doctrinal research method. There is a need for the contemporary social goal oriented law, which is based on the legislative study and where the extra legal factors are considered, particularly when they play a key role, whether it is positive or negative remains irrelevant, when it comes to the shaping of the law. There is also a lack of the study of factors in doctrinal research method, which is out of the legal system, but which influences the operation of law in a direct or indirect manner. At times, the prejudices and the prevailing stakes of a particular dominant social group have the power of hampering the operations and the success of law. And so, there is a need for studying such extra legal factors, the prejudices and also the interests in order to understand their contribution and their role in the law making for the same to be effective. This is both inevitable and desirable for devising proper policy oriented measures and legislatures so that such matters which can end the law are sent away. There is a sole reliance over the doctrinal research method and the prominence is only given to the traditional sources of law. And many of the judgements which go unreported, the attitudes of the lower courts, the actual practices and the administrative agencies quasi judicial power are not ex plored. When it comes to the socio-legal research methods, they too have a number of benefits and limitations. This method is also referred to as non-doctrinal legal research method where the answers are sought for a range of questions which have an impact over the social performance or the social dimension of law, and the impact over the social behaviour. Hence, socio-legal research is basically a social-auditing of law. Some of the advantages of these have been stated below. The first and foremost advantage of socio-legal research method is that through this method, the gaps between the social reality and the legislative goals are highlighted; thus, helping in presenting a true and fair picture of the law in action. Particularly, these highlight the gaps with regards to the practices of the adjudicators, the law enforcers and the regulators; and the under use or the use of law by the intended law beneficiaries. The regulatory body which is formed through the law has been given the power of enforcing and monitoring the law, as a result of certain apathies or bias towards the beneficiaries or their adversaries, which is professionally inactive in enforcement of law. The socio-legal research highlights the rationale behind making of the law which is symbolic, ineffective or less-effective. The extent to which the beneficiaries would be able to use the law is also revealed, along with the factors which discontinue them from using the same. The non-doctrinal legal research method, through empiricism, highlights the underlying factors or currents which discontinue them from attaining the laws benefits which are bestowed on them, and also to seek the legal redressal against the ones who prevent such from happening. Hence, the bottlenecks in the laws operation are exposed through this method. The socio-legal method carries particular importance in the modern welfare states where the socio-economic transformation is envisioned through the law and so, the law is perceived as attaining socio-economic parity and justice. The social legal research assesses the role and contribution of role through empiricism for bringing the intended social results. The impact of law is assessed particularly regarding the social values, attitude and the outlook towards the changes which have been contemplated through the law which is under question. So the factors which create problems for the attainment of objective of a particular law are effectively highlighted through this research method. The next advantage of this method, is an extension of the first two advantages, and this method provides expert advice, as a result of which, noteworthy feedback is given to the policy-makers and judges which helps in better interpretation, formulation and enforcement of law. It also provides an invaluable help particularly when it comes to the shaping of the legislation as per the social engineering philosophy which is followed in the modern state, and helps in making them effective instruments of the socio-economic transformation which has been planned. Even though the socio-legal research has a number of advantages resulting in great potential, there are fair shares of limitations, which have to be highlighted in order to provide the right viewpoint. The very first limitation is that this method is majorly a time consuming method, apart from being a costly affair since a lot of time is spent on collecting the information from different fields. It also requires more training in employing and designing the tools of data collection, along with entailing higher commitment of energy and time for producing results which mean something, be it for the theory builders or the policy makers. This research method requires a strong base of doctrine research. So, where the researcher does not have strong doctrinal legal research, the socio-legal research becomes meaningless. And the efforts which are put into it would thus prove to be futile. The next limitation of this method is that the basic tool of collection of data, particularly the observation, schedule, questionnaire and interview are not an easy task to indulge in. There is a need for specialized skill and knowledge from the very first stage, i.e., planning to the very end stage, i.e., execution. There are a number of difficulties in each of these. There is a need to have sound skill based training, for the researcher, in social science research techniques. The overall impact of this weakness is coupled with the fact that a properly trained social scientist is not able to commence social legal research as they lack the strong base of doctrinal legal research which is required, in the majority of cases. Hence, the scholars who have a strong base of legal principles and doctrinal legal research are not able to venture in socio-legal research till the time there is a proper social science research technique. So, this research method becomes almost a nightmare. Another key point here is that the public opinion influences the framework and the contents of law. In the majority instances, the law attempts to change the attitude, social value and public opinion. And when such happens, it becomes difficult for a socio-legal researcher to predict the direction or course which the law needs to follow or take in a certain way, based on the sociological data. There is involvement of predictions in majority of judgments along experience and intuition of the researcher. And this would lead to the researcher going back to the doctrinal legal research. From the analysis which was carried on in the previous parts, one thing becomes very clear that each of research methods, i.e., the doctrinal and the socio-legal research are two broad kinds of legal research. And when they are used in connectivity, they overcome the limitations of the other method, while retaining the advantages of both these methods. In essence, they overlap with each other, instead of being mutually exclusive. Hence, it becomes difficult to draw a pragmatic line or a sharp theoretical demarcation between the two research methods. Each method has its own advantages as the doctrinal method provides a strong theoretical background and the socio-legal method provides the present context particularly based on the perceptions of the present time. The former is proved through different researchers and the latter requires research to be undertaken on the basis of present context. The former is limited through the text becoming old and not taking into consideration the cha nges of time and the evolution of the already drawn contexts, whilst the latter requires a specific skill set to undertake the research, along with a strong doctrinal legal research. Thus, to bring true reforms to the law, there is a need for undertaking both these researchers, so that on the basis of the strong legal backing, new laws are drawn in the present context, to bring out a law, which has the best of both worlds. Bibliography Articles/ Books/ Journal Azam M, Intellectual Property and Public Health in the Developing World (Open Book Publishers, 2016) Baker J, An Introduction to English Legal History (Butterworths LexisNexis, 2002) Banakar R and Travers M, Theory and Method in Socio-Legal Research (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005) Bhatia VK, and Wagner A, Diversity and Tolerance in Socio-Legal Contexts:Explorations in the Semiotics of Law (Routledge, 2016) Blackstone W, Commentaries on the Laws of England (Callaghan, 1872) Chakraborty D, Empirical (non-Doctrinal) Research Method and Its role in Legal Research (2015) 3(1) International Journal of Advances in Social Sciences, 23-28. Cotterrell R, Law, Culture and Society: Legal Ideas in the Mirror of Social Theory (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2013) Davis KC, Behavioral Science and Administrative Law (1964) 17 Journal of Legal Education 137 at 151-52 Feenan D, Exploring the 'Socio' of Socio-Legal Studies (Springer, 2013) Hoecke MV, Methodologies of Legal Research: Which Kind of Method for What Kind of Discipline? (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011) Hutchinson T and Duncan N, Defining and Describing What We Do: Doctrinal Legal Research (2012) 17 Deakin Law Review 83, Jain SN, Doctrinal and Non-Doctrinal Legal Research, (1975) 17 Jr of Ind Law Inst 516 Knight A, and Ruddock L, Advanced Research Methods in the Built Environment (John Wiley Sons, 2009) McEniery B, The Patentability of Non-physical Inventions: Lessons from the United States (2009) 35 Monash University Law Review 376 Verma SK, and Wani MA (eds), Legal Research and Methodology (Indian Law Institute, 2nd ed, 2001) Watkins D, and Burton M, Research Methods in Law (Routledge, 2013) Others Banakar R, and Travers M, Introduction (2017) https://ssrn.com/abstract=1511112 Chynoweth P, Legal research (2017) https://www.csas.ed.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/66542/Legal_Research_Chynoweth_-_Salford_Uni..pdf Hutchinson T, The Doctrinal Method: Incorporating Interdisciplinary Methods in Reforming the Law (2015) https://www.erasmuslawreview.nl/tijdschrift/ELR/2015/3/ELR-D-15-003_006/fullscreen Snel MVR, Source-usage within doctrinal legal inquiry: choices, problems, and challenges (2014) https://www.lawandmethod.nl/tijdschrift/lawandmethod/2014/06/RENM-D-13-00003/fullscreen Vibhute K, and Aynalem F, Legal Research Methods (2009) https://chilot.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/legal-research-methods.pdf
Thursday, April 23, 2020
To run with expeditiously the huntsmans needed to understand the environments that they lived and the wonts of animate beings that they hunted. The Siksika folk wore apparels made of animate being teguments that were either cervid or American bison. Clothing was to be sewn from tendon. The mittens and robes that the folk had for the winter were all a world because of the fell of a American bison. Because the American bison herds moved from topographic point to topographic point. so did the Siksika folk. So their shelters in a manner had to be portable. To work out this job the folks made their shelters from tepees which could be put togethe in- -to a shelter and so be taken apart once more. The folk used tools and made them utilizing their milieus. Some of the tools that they used were the awl. the scraper. and the flesher. Some of the surrounding stuffs used to do the tools were wood. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Do Organizations Need Managers? Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page rock. and bone. In the winter the folks had to populate in river vales that had to hold been sheltered or possibly the foothills of the bouldery mountains. they lived in little household groups. However in the spring and summer they were much more active. When spring came the Ã¢â¬Å"SiksikaÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ moved into the prairie where they were joined by other small household groups. In the summers they came together in these immense groups for the American bison Hunt. They HAD to collaborate to kill the big animate beings such as the American bison. Some groups went to trail the American bison over the drops. Others chased them into lbs. in instance you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cognize lbs were these countries that were enclosed in shrubs. Most of the Ã¢â¬Å"SiksikaÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ killed the buffaloÃ¢â¬â¢s with bow and arrows or possibly lances. The Siksika were careful non to blow ANY parts of the American bison but if you want to read more about my finds with their physioloical spell and read the portion of this booklet that says physiological demands. Psco needs If you are one that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to destruct he earth and maintain it nice and clean so male child will you Love the siksika folk. The siksika believed that everything had a spirit and in my eyes did the large things that worlds now donÃ¢â¬â¢t truly do today. 1 they kill merely the animate beings the y need to. And 2 they try at that place best to maintain the land the manner they found it. The siksika besides worshiped a God. His name is the Godhead or the great spirit. they besides believed that every populating thing on Earth was sacred and to be respected Elders were highlty respected because of their huge cognition and their advice. they besides made certain that all tribe members knew the Torahs and imposts of the group. They gave religious counsel to gro up members and frequently led ceremonials the siksika folk believed the importance of cooperation a nd sharing. Everyone was EXPECTED to make something. Male s and females had specific occupations to make. Boys and misss learne d all there accomplishments from there parents and other grownups. Youn g work forces about ever became warriors. They were trained as male childs to get the awsome accomplishments and needed fittingness T O Hunt big game and besides for defence. The sisksika follo wed one manner of determination devising and one manner merely. if of all time ybody doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree so nil happens. It was impor tant to the siksika that all resorts were shared so none went hungry. Group determinations were respected by everyon e. There was tonss of teamwork when it came to runing. It to ok several work forces to run large game such as cervid or American bison.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Is Trucking the Best Job for You Do you ever fantasize about quitting your job and finding a career on the open road, with just your thoughts and the radio to keep you company? If so, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not alone- and it may not be as far-fetched a career plan as you might think. Growing OpportunitiesMuch of the U.S. economy depends on goods finding their way to warehouses and stores all over the country- and in many cases, those goods are transported by long-haul tractor-trailer truck drivers. Fast delivery is becoming a major selling point for online retailers like Amazon and big-box stores like Wal-Mart and Target, which makes professional truckers anÃ important part of satisfying customer expectations.Truck drivers are a crucial part of an ever-expanding supply chain: by 2022, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that the demand for heavy and tractor-trailer drivers will grow by as much as 11%.The LegworkThere are hurdles to a career in trucking- as tempting as it sounds, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t just show up, stan dard driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license in hand, and expect to drive a big rig to Ohio. All states require a specific Commercial DriverÃ¢â¬â¢s License (CDL) to operate heavy trucks and tractor-trailers. Additionally, most trucking companies require a high school degree and completion of a professional truck-driving training program.There are also personal considerations. Are you willing to be away from home for days or weeks at a time? Do you have the time-management skills to meet rigorous delivery schedules in all weather, on holidays, or on your birthday? Being a truck driver requires a strong personal commitment as well as a professional one.Hitting the RoadLetÃ¢â¬â¢s say youÃ¢â¬â¢ve met all these requirements, made the necessary choices, and received the right training and recommendations. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to pack up your faithful dog and your toothbrush, and seek a trucking job. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the best way to do that?You may want to start by researching which trucking companies m eet your goals and your comfort level. Regional trucking companies may be able to offer you jobs closer to home. National trucking companies tend to have the broadest reach and the most access to available trucking jobs.You should also consider whether the company will hire a rookie driver right out of the gate- many companies want their new drivers to have 3 months to a year of driving time before theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll consider hiring. This may sound discouraging to start (how do I get experience if no one will hire me without experience?), but itÃ¢â¬â¢s common in most career paths to start at the bottom by creating/locating opportunities and working your way up.The Money QuestionPerhaps the most important part of any job search is understanding what your salary will be- and can be. Like other fields, trucking offers its lowest salaries to drivers just starting out, especially if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the driving experience yet. However, you should know that while many industries have a wide gap between starting employees and long-time veterans, truck drivers have a pretty even field once youÃ¢â¬â¢re in it.The average starting pay for a truck driver is $13.81/hour, compared to an average of $18.37/hour (approximately $38,200/year) for all drivers. This kind of parity is often a reason people choose to get started in the trucking industry- your pay is not significantly less than more experienced colleaguesÃ¢â¬â¢.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re seeking a career that can be challenging and fulfilling while paying the bills and letting you travel, truckingÃ could just be the right choice for you. And if you have the ability to find Zen even in the most obnoxious traffic jams, all the better!
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Challenges to Infection Control of Hep C, B and HIV Infection control and cross contamination prevention are imperative to ensuring high quality patient care and quality of life for all patients. In the hemodialysis clinics and hospital units where patients are in end stage renal disease the prevention of infection is of utmost concern as it is directly correlated to lowered morbidity and mortality rates. Blood borne pathogens and bacteria are transmitted through poor infection control practices and lack of cross contamination prevention procedures. To understand the importance of infection control and cross contamination prevention, it is first imperative to understand the risks and consequences of infection transmittal in the hemodialysis unit. The hemodialysis unit is unique in that the procedure allows pathogens to enter the body through access sites, injection sites, and catheterization, all of which increase risk of infection for already ill patients. The following explores the most common concerns in infection transmittal as H epatitis C and B, HIV, and common bacteria found in hemodialysis patients. This is followed by an exploration of methods in infection control, focusing on the procedures of cleaning, sterilization, and disinfection. An examination of staff education and training procedures that impact infection control and patient care follows. The research concludes with a summary and commentary. Research has often compared the incidences of HCV infections in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in patients, finding that patients undergoing clinical bloodstream invasive hemodialysis procedures have three times higher rates of HCV infections (Horl et al 2004). This is reflective of nosocomial transmission of HCV within the clinical dialysis setting (Horl et al 2004). HCV is transmitted through cross-contamination, occurring through Ã¢â¬Å"blood, shared cannulas, and equipment, and blood transfusionsÃ¢â¬ (Horl et al 2004 p 1390). A comparison of the outcome of hepatitis virus-positive and -negativ e kidney transplant and hemodialysis patients involved 384 kidney transplant patients (67 HBsAg positive, 39 anti-HCV positive, 278 hepatitis negative), transplanted between 1987 and 2001, and 403 hemodialysis patients (128 HBsAg positive, 83 anti-HCV positive, 192 hepatitis negative) who had started hemodialysis and were referred to the kidney transplant waiting list during the same period (Visnja et al 2008). Comparison of the groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ survival rates, adjusted for patient age, showed that all kidney transplant patients survived longer than hemodialysis patients (p < 0.001) (Visnja et al 2008). Interestingly, HBV infection had a negative impact on patient survival, especially in hemodialysis patients, but HCV infection did not have a significant influence on patient survival (Visnja et al 2008). Thirty-two outpatient hemodialysis providers in the United States voluntarily reported 3699 adverse events to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) during 2006 (Klevens et al 2008). Among the 599 isolates reported, 461 (77%) represented access-associated blood stream infections in patients with central lines, and 138 (23%) were in patients with fistulas or grafts (Klevens et al 2008). The microorganisms most frequently identified were common skin contaminants (e.g., coagulase-negative staphylococci) (Klevens et al 2008). Hepatitis C (HCV) among maintenance hemodialysis patients has limited data on the incidence and prevalence. According to Bennett, Brachman and Jarvis (2007 p 360): Ã¢â¬Å"In 2002, 63% of dialysis centers tested patients for anti-HCV, and 11.5% reported having (symbol) 1 patient who became anti-HCV positive in 2002. The incidence rate in 2002 was 0.34% among centers that tested for anti-HCV, the prevalence of anti-HCV among patients was 7y.8%, a decrease of 25.7% since 1995. In the facilities that tested, the reported incidence was 0.34% and the prevalence3 was 7.8%. Only 11.5% of dialysis facilities reported newly acquired HCV infection among their patientsÃ¢â¬ .
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The Impact of Organisational Learning on the Creation and Communication of Knowledge - Coursework Example This essay approves that communication of knowledge within an organization is important due to various reasons. It allows knowledge to be dissipated from the ones that already possess the knowledge to those employees that are new in the organization. When employees retire, their positions are taken up by new recruits. Almost all organizations are concerned about the issue of retention of knowledge within the organization after their valuable and most experienced employees retire. It is crucial that the level of knowledge with which work was done by the previous employees, should not deteriorate on their replacement. This purpose can be fulfilled only if there is smooth flow of knowledge with the organization. This report makes a conclusion that organizational learning refers to the change that occurs in an organization due to the knowledge acquired by the members of the organization through experience gathered with passage of time. Although this is the most common explanation of the term, Ã¢â¬Ëorganizational learningÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined in various ways by researchers. These definitions are affected by the mission and vision of the organizations that have been considered for the research and also the perspectives and pre-accumulated views of the scholars. Hence organizational learning has essentially become an interdisciplinary topic. Research on this topic draws elements from a number of fields and also outcome of this research makes extensive contribution to these fields leading to development of these fields, such as, theory of organizational behaviour, sociology and social psychology, cognitive psychology, information systems, engineering, economics, and strategic management. The pape r by Argote and Spektor (2011) provides a theoretical framework that helps to analyze the process of organizational learning and the level of knowledge gained on performance by employees. Purpose of the study The interdisciplinary nature of the study related to organizational learning makes it a topic of interest for research scholars. The paper selected for critical reviewing deals with this topic and presents an elaborate framework of study on organizational learning, covering the variations in the definitions of the term, the existing theory on this topic and analysis of this theory, importance of organizational experience in creating organizational learning and the process of organizational learning that includes creation, retention and transfer of knowledge. This purpose fits the paper very well since it has been published in the journal named Organization Science. This is because the journal aims at bridging the gap that exists between different disciplines and advancing the k nowledge that evolves from this process (Argote and Spektor, 2011). This paper has been presented with the view that the results would stimulate further research in future on this topic. Since it is a broad topic, there is wide scope of future research and researchers might find out new avenues to link the study of this topic with disciplines that have not been studied before with regard to organizational learning. Nature and extent of the issues Studies on Ã¢â¬Å"organizational learning and knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Argote and Spektor, 2011, p. 1124) are getting diversified due to the inclusion of a wide variety of ways in which knowledge is being created in present times and is being communicated. The authors of Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational learning: From experience to knowledgeÃ¢â¬ have identified the themes that are currently emerging in this field. This paper sets the scope for further research on these themes and develops the platform that would enrich the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ understandin g of the core topic. In this paper, it has been emphasised that creation of new knowledge and its smooth transfer across all levels of the organization is as important as proper retention of knowledge. In this paper transfer of knowledge is used synonymously with the notion of communication of knowledge. Proper learning through experiences is central to organizational prosperity (Taylor and Greve, 2006). It leads to greater understanding of the vision of the organization, fulfilment of the promises it has made towards its shareholders and the society and an overall improvement in organizational practice (Greve, 2003). Communication of knowledge within an organization is important due to various reasons. It